Transfer process[ edit ] Many companies, universities and governmental organizations now have an Office of Technology Transfer TTO, also known as "Tech Transfer" or "TechXfer" dedicated to identifying research which has potential commercial interest and strategies for how to exploit it.
HaywireMedia Technology transfer is a fast-growing activity in the U.
The exact nature of this activity is difficult to pin down, partly because the term has many different connotations. Some of the varieties of technology transfer commonly discussed in business periodicals such as the Wall Street Journal include: While all four types of technology transfer are of concern to businesses, this overview will deal mostly with the first two types.
International technology transfer and North-South technology transfer these activities tend to be driven directly by foreign policy and national defense concerns, while the other two types are driven by a balance of corporate and policy interests.
Technology is information that is put to use in order to accomplish some task. Transfer is the movement of technology via some communication channel from one individual or organization to another.
Technology is the useful application of knowledge and expertise into an operation. Technology transfer Technology transfer involves some source of technology, group which posses specialized technical skills, which transfers the technology to a target group of receptors who do not possess those specialized technical skills, and who therefore cannot create the tool themselves Carayannis et al.
In the United States especially, the technology transfer experience has pointed to multiple transfer strategies, two of which are the most significant: The major categories of technology transfer and commercialization involve the transfer of: Most technology transfer takes place because the organization in which a technology is developed is different from the organization that brings the technology to market.
The process of introducing a technology into the marketplace is called technology commercialization. In many cases, technology commercialization is carried out by a single firm.
The firm's employees invent the technology, develop it into a commercial product or process, and sell it to customers. In a growing number of cases, however, the organization that creates a technology does not bring it to the market. There are several potential reasons for this: If the inventing organization is a private company, it may not have the resources needed to bring the technology to market, such as a distribution network, sales organization, or simply the money and equipment for manufacturing the product these resources are called complementary assets.
Even if the company has those resources, the technology may not be viewed as a strategic product for that firm, especially if the technology was created as a byproduct of a research project with a different objective. If the inventing organization is a government laboratory, that laboratory is forbidden in general by law or policy in the United States from competing with the private sector by selling products or processes.
Therefore, the technology can only be brought to market by a private firm. If the inventing organization is a university, the university usually does not have the resources or expertise to produce and market the products from that technology.
Also, if the technology was developed with funding from the federal government, U. From a public policy perspective, technology transfer is important because technology can be utilized as a resource for shared prosperity at home and abroad.
As a resource, technology 1 consists of a body of knowledge and know-how, 2 acts as a stimulant for healthy competitive international trade, 3 is linked with other nations' commercial needs, and 4 needs an effective plan for management and entrepreneurship from lab to market. From a business perspective, companies engage in technology transfer for a number of reasons: Companies look to transfer technologies from other organizations because it may be cheaper, faster, and easier to develop products or processes based on a technology someone else has invented rather than to start from scratch.
Transferring technology may also be necessary to avoid a patent infringement lawsuit, to make that technology available as an option for future technology development, or to acquire a technology that is necessary for successfully commercializing a technology the company already possesses.
Companies look to transfer technologies to other organizations as a potential source of revenue, to create a new industry standard, or to partner with a firm that has the resources or complementary assets needed to commercialize the technology.
For government laboratories and universities, the motivations for technology transfer are somewhat different: Governments or universities may transfer technology from outside organizations if it is needed to accomplish a specific goal or mission for example, universities may transfer in educational technologiesor if that technology would add value to a technology the government or university is hoping to transfer out to a company.
Government laboratories and universities commonly transfer technologies to other organizations for economic development reasons to create jobs and revenues for local firmsas an alternate source of funding, or to establish a relationship with a company that could have benefits in the future.
The first requirement for an organization to transfer a technology is to establish legal ownership of that technology through intellectual property law. There are four generally recognized forms of intellectual property in industrialized nations: The number of patents granted by the U.
A trademark, as defined under the Trademark Act of The Lanham Act is "any word, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof 1 used by a person, or 2 which a person has a bona fide intention to use in commerce…to identify and distinguish his or her goods, including a unique product, from those manufactured or sold by others, and to indicate the source of the goods, even if that source is unknown.
Constitution broadly calls writings of authors. The general rule in the United States for a work created on or after January 1,whether or not it is published, is that copyright lasts for the author's life-time plus 50 years after the author's death.
The copyright in a work made for hire or in an anonymous work lasts for 75 years from publication or years from creation, whichever is shorter. A trade secret is information that an inventor chooses not to disclose and to which the inventor also controls access, thus providing enduring protection.
Trade secrets remain in force only if the holder takes reasonable precautions to prevent them from being revealed to people outside the firm, except through a legal mechanism such as a license. Trade secrets are governed by state rather than federal law. The second step in technology transfer is finding a suitable recipient for that technology—one that can use the technology and has something of value to offer in return.
Firms are now studying more systematically the process of licensing and technology transfer. There are five information activities needed to support technology transfer:Technology transfer is the process that universities and other research organizations use to translate research discoveries and scientific findings into new products, technologies, drugs and other services that benefit the public.
NREL's Technology Transfer Ombuds offers an informal process to help resolve issues and concerns regarding the laboratory's technology partnership, patent, and licensing activities.
As a designated neutral party, our Ombuds provides confidential, resolution-focused services. Transferring technical skills and knowledge to the workforce through innovative methods of training, documentation and consulting since Technology transfer (T2) is the process by which the transportation community receives and applies the results of research.
Building a Foundation for Effective Technology Transfer Through Integration with the Research Process: A Primer. Technology transfer is the process by which technology or knowledge developed in one place or for one purpose is applied and exploited in another place for some other purpose.
Technology transfer can be described as market pull or technology push. Technology transfer occurs as a result of market pull when a need or problem causes companies to seek federal technology.
Technology push occurs when innovations or inventions are used to create new markets or consumer needs.