Americans began demanding more and improved roads to capitalize on the mobility made possible by the car. Also, the automotive, construction, and tourism related industries lobbied state and federal governments to become heavily involved in funding road construction, a responsibility previously relegated to local governments. As cars became affordable for the average American, and paved roads became increasingly ubiquitous, not only did the suburban frontier open up to a rising proportion of the population; it was now possible to live almost anywhere in the United States. Another factor that opened up the rest of the United States for urban development was a change in the cost of obtaining energy.
About 85 per cent of the population lives in coastal areas, and most of these people live in urban areas with populations of over people.
This level of urbanisation has meant that many of our cities are facing enormous pressure to keep up with the needs of their swelling populations. See image 1 Major impacts of urban growth Urbanisation has created many issues in Australian environments.
While more people may translate to economic benefits, ever-expanding populations have brought with them a range of problems for both the physical and built environments.
This process means that the natural environment suffers as more space is required for the construction of houses and the development of industry. As more ecosystems are disrupted and habitats are destroyed, urban growth leads to an even greater reduction in the biodiversity of areas surrounding cities.
The problems of pollution and sewage disposal are also made worse by increases in population size. In terms of the pressures it places on the built environment, urban sprawl increases the monetary and environmental costs associated with infrastructure, waste disposal, the use of natural resources and energy consumption.
It also has the potential to negatively affect the social cohesion of cities, as it often results in a lack of equity amongst urban residents, particularly in terms of access to infrastructure and other essential services provided by the city.
Another impact is that, as fewer people live in the city centre, the quality of the original urban areas falls into decay. Urban sprawl in Sydney Sydney could really be considered as the heart of urban Australia. The population of Sydney is predicted to reach 4.
Sincehowever, Melbourne, Perth and Brisbane have recorded higher rates of population growth than Sydney. See image 2 Urban and human ecological footprints In order to assess the sustainability of a population, geographers sometimes use the ecological footprint or eco-footprint model.
This determines the impact that a defined human population for example one person, a city or a country has upon its surrounding environment. See animation 1 An urban ecological footprint does this by providing an approximation of the total amount of land required by a city, to provide it with the resources it needs to sustain its population.
In addition to accounting for the food, water and other natural resources people consume, the footprint also includes the space required to dispose of all the waste they generate. It was also predicted that if current rates of growth continued without any drastic action being taken, the footprint would cover about 95 per cent of NSW by the year The human ecological footprints of individuals within a defined geographical area such as a country can also be calculated.
The Australian population has an extremely large ecological footprint compared with other countries around the globe, which is indicative of our unsustainable consumption patterns, and reflective of the impact we have upon our surrounding environments. Our ecological footprint is in fact the eighth highest in the world, at 7.
In comparison to this, the ecological footprint of the USA is 9. Resource and energy challenges Larger cities demand more energy and place more strain on our already scarce natural resources, such as water and energy. In Australia, our already unsustainable household energy consumption levels are alarmingly on the rise.
Urbanisation fuels this trend even further as larger populations need to be supported by more sophisticated infrastructure, which in turn demands more electricity.Local crime rates are among the highest in the United States (despite this, the overall crime rate in the city has seen a decline during the 21st century), and vast areas of the city are in a state of severe urban decay.
Urban Decline in the United States – Quantifying the Population Decline Between and the population of the United States increased by approximately million people, from . 7/12/ 3 Factors leading to urban decline Labor Market catchment area for La Crosse is in three states and necessitates commuters to more rural.
Urban decline and regeneration within urban areas Characteristics and causes of urban decline. Urban regeneration: gentrification, property-led regeneration schemes, partnership schemes between local and national governments and the private sector.
Factors Leading to Urban Decline Essay What factors have led to urban decline? (15) Political factors After the closure of London Dockland’s in , the area was in a near to derelict state as people and businesses quickly moved out of the area.
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.